Five Technologies Every Frontend Engineer Should Know

When I started learning how to code in 2008, the landscape for a frontend developer was very different than it is today. In 2008, it was good to know HTML & CSS (that hasn’t changed) and with a little bit of jQuery knowledge and the ability to use the WordPress API and an FTP uploader, you could get by building basic brochures sites for clients, but you couldn’t bend the web to your will.

In the last 3-4 years, Frontend Engineering has changed from being more about simply the aesthetics and content and become a role that requires thinking about optimization, data structures and state. If your eyes just glazed over, that’s okay, just read on.

I’m going to explain at a very high level the five technologies that are crucial to my day-to-day as a Frontend Engineer with the hopes that it:

  • Gives you starting points for what technologies to learn if you want to pursue becoming a Frontend Engineer.
  • helps Junior Frontend Engineers have a roadmap for what they should already know and what they need to learn.

The Five technologies (mostly languages, if you want to learn about frontend engineering tools, check out this post) every Frontend Engineer should know are:

The really good news is that nothing has replaced html, css or javascript as browser languages since the first browser wars so being able to use them will be useful as long as web browsers continue to exist.


html (HyperText Markup Language) is the language that defines the content of the web. A web browser will read an html file and render the content into the browser. If a webpage were a living being, html would essentially be the bones. It gives the webpage structure.

An example of html would look something like this:

And the rendered HTML would look like this:

Hello world! This is a link.

No matter what you’re building for the web, if it’s in the browser you’ll be using HTML, either directly or through a component library or templating language.


css (Cascading Style Sheets) is language that gives a website its look and feel. Where html was the bones, css is the skin. Without css a website would simply be text and images: a rendered bland blob of content.

An example of css would be:

So for html like this:

The result would be that every paragraph tag would have a background of “electric blue” (using a hexidecimal color value), the font color would be white and the paragraph will have padding of 1em (which is basically the size of the font inside the paragraph):

Hello world!

CSS is really important for giving visual cues, adding general aesthetics and giving a website the unique qualities it needs to stand out.

Javascript (vanilla)

Javascript is my favorite language: It’s the language of the functionality of the web.

Whenever you submit a Facebook post, reshare a tweet on twitter, send an email in gmail, click a swatch color on that changes the images and buy box selection to match that color, that’s Javascript.

Javascript has become a huge part of being a Frontend Engineer because it drives so much of what we actually do on the web that’s interactive.

In the past, most websites would have full page reloads when you clicked a link, today a lot of websites are transitioning to Single Page Apps, which means every interaction on a website in the browser is fully powered by Javascript.

Within Javascript there are two subsets that I think are really important: json and node. These are really useful and my guess is that if you do become a Frontend Engineer you’re going to have a hard time getting away with not using them.


json is a subset of javascript, easily readable by humans, for defining objects with key value pairs. It’s generally used for communication between a server and a web application.

Most APIs provided by companies (such as Twitter, Trello and GitHub) are in json format and many companies are using json APIs to serve their data to the Frontend, which means Frontend Engineers will be spending a lot of time using json. @WalmartLabs, for example, is building the entire eCommerce platform on a RESTful json API.

The really cool thing about json is that even though the language was created from how Javascript objects work, any other language can consume it, which makes it both easy to read and easy to use for any developer.


Once you’ve learned the basics of Javascript in the browser, transitioning those skills (the core syntax and concepts) to the server has a huge amount of value. You can do that with NodeJS, a run-time environment for server-side and networking applications.

NodeJS is being used heavily in a lot of organizations (Netflix, Walmart, General Electric and an ever growing list of others) for both serving content and internal tooling, which makes it a really valuable “language” to know. There are some conceptual differences in NodeJS from Javascript in the browser but learning javascript for both the browser and the server will make you a huge asset wherever you’re working.

Git (Version Control)

git isn’t a language, it is a version control system, a technology that every developer should be using. git allows developers to keep a history of how their files changed, easily merge other developer’s change, revert a project to a specific state in the history and define stable versions of a project.

Note: a lot of new developers use the term git interchangeably with is one place where a developer can keep their projects that are version controlled with git, but it isn’t explicitly related to git.


Markdown is the easiest technology to learn in this list, but it’s one of the most prolific technologies on the internet. Markdown is a really simple syntax that allows anyone to write text that can be easily converted into html.

Markdown is the language of documentation, so if you’re working on a project that will be used by someone else, most likely you’ll be (should be) writing documentation and doing it in Markdown.

Every post I write is also written in Markdown, as an example My post on Frontend Tools of the Trade is converted into html, but this is the raw markdown used to generate it.

An example of markdown would be:

Which would render to the following html:

The basics are outlined on the Daring Fireball Markdown Basics page.

Wrap Up

These five languages are core to what I do on a daily basis and knowing these languages will make you both a powerful Frontend Engineer and a huge asset to any organization building for the web.

Are you interested in learning the skills required to be a frontend engineer? Let me nkow in the comments below!